How e-commerce has changed modern day business

Information Technology has changed the ways of doing business. It has changed many aspects like product development, marketing and selling process, communication channels that have revolutionized eCommerce and thus changed the way of doing business. Ecommerce has brought new methods of doing business together with a great shopping experience. This change is primarily because of the fact that now online purchase offers more comfort, clarity and potential than the old-school brick and mortar store facility. Today there is a boom in the ecommerce business and India accounts for as many as 1,06,086 registered ecommerce websites.

The ways in which ecommerce has changed the business pattern in India are:-

  • Easy initiative—The most visible change brought about by ecommerce is the ease of taking initiative or stated simply, starting a business. Now anyone can start their own online business from anywhere and sell their products and services even in an international market. Ecommerce has also paved the way for handicraft and handloom industries to make decent profits as compared to earlier times when there earnings were taken by middlemen. Now with ecommerce websites they can sell their product directly to the customer. One can buy and sell almost anything. It does not require much of technical knowledge to start an online store.
  • Variety of low-priced products—Today there are a number of ecommerce sites with strong competition between them because of which the prices of the products are affected the most. So on the ecommerce platforms high quality products are available at low prices with great offers. Another reason for availability of the low priced products is that the ecommerce website owner pays only to host fees accounting to five or ten thousand yearly which might increase depending on the site traffic. Then because of the global reach of ecommerce websites the prices of the products are kept low as a seller can reach international buyers too so they don’t need to charge extra money for their products.
  • Market monopoly is in—It’s easy to start an ecommerce business but difficult to manage and survive in it. One needs the skills of digital marketing surely to sustain the business in a decent way. It is because there are big brands online already which sell most of the essentials people need providing fastest delivery options which can be a tough thing for a startup to focus on. Prominent brands spend a lot of money on digital advertisements of their website with the help of digital marketing tools and techniques. The biggest challenge for an ecommerce startup is to break the monopoly of top brands which can best be done strategically.
  • Ecommerce is the only thing left during the pandemic—A very notable impact of ecommerce is seen during the time of the corona pandemic. Because of the never ending restrictions posed on life and the living, everyone has only the option to shop online to avoid being affected by the ongoing pandemic. So people have become habitual to buy and sell online.
  • Brand commitment is the rising thing—Brands in the ecommerce market are becoming committed to their channels contrary to the time when brands were confused on how to balance their sites, marketplace presence and partner channels. The brands now focus on giving a seamless experience to their customers regardless of the channel used for purchase.
  • Personalized shopping experience-–By personalized experience is meant that people can buy according to their needs whatever they want for themselves. Personalized digital marketing like search advertising, location-based advertising, remarketing are used by the ecommerce companies. For eg, certain websites like Pepper fry have a feature of Augmented Reality in their ecommerce mobile app. By this feature a user of the app can see which furniture will suit his living room. Similarly Lens kart gives a function of 3D trial of frames where one can see which structure suits them the best. All this happens because of Augmented Reality.
  • Buy on the go—In today’s busy and fast-paced life people can do shopping from anywhere they want to whether they be travelling, watching movies, attending a party etc.
  • Variety of product options—When we go out shopping in a physical shop it becomes a tedious job trying to visit multiple shops to find out the desired variety. Shopping offline is time consuming and discomforting.
  • Easy payment options—Ecommerce has changed trading methods. One of which is the cashless transactions. Today there are many versions of credit and debit cards available for online shopping.
  • Ease of payment—It’s not only the customers who are doing cashless transactions, buying products via debit cards but seller and merchants are also being paid online. Now they don’t need to handle the cash because it goes directly in their bank accounts. There is no hassle for open money nor to sell in lending. The cashless transaction and trading through ecommerce websites is helping the government to grow and make the tax collection process transparent.
  • Data-driven decisions—Ecommerce tends to increase the spending habits of customers and increase expenses. Ecommerce store owners are able to sell more globally, target the behaviour of buyers, retarget the customers on social media and through ads, collect the data and utilize sales conversion. All this is happening because of data-driven decisions in digital marketing and selling. An ecommerce store or website can analyse the data, can target and market the specific product more strongly, can launch the product in the new market because they track the source of customers, buying habits, interests, location etc through the tracking code on the ecommerce website. And it’s not possible in the offline shopping and selling methods. So we can say that ecommerce has changed the way of promotion and sale of products. And because of personalization and cross-selling, customers are spending more money online than offline.
  • Business automation—Ecommerce has changed the way of business operations. Ecommerce business is online 24/7 which means it is automatic and run by internet or automation tools. Everything is available to automate ecommerce business. Everything from marketing, delivery, inventory management, advertising can be automated. Business automation is the change that is bringing ecommerce in the market. 
  •  Easy to target the customer—Ecommerce websites according to shopping and browsing traits can analyse data and set their target audiences. They are also able to calculate the impact of their ads on social media. It helps them from spending unnecessarily on bogus platforms. The tools like social media advertising, cookies, keyword research tools, search engine marketing, display, video ads give the opportunity to target specific customers and locations. Ecommerce is bringing the change where the product is manufactured and promoted based on user’s interest and choice. And because of the presence of keywords, social media networking, display and video ads and the availability of data, ecommerce websites and owners are able to target the customer’s needs. Ecommerce is increasing sales and reducing the marketing cost.
  • Retaining customers—Ecommerce helps businesses to re-target or retain customers. The ecommerce websites, online store owners, marketers can connect with customers on social media, emails, ads. They can update customers about their products on social media, they can chat in real-time, they can send newsletters and educate the customers via their blogs and YouTube videos.
  • Staff can work remotely—The staff available for the ecommerce business is highly skilled. Every business needs expert sellers and marketers, managers and storekeepers. But it is difficult to find the right talent. With the coming of ecommerce there is a vast availability of freelancers and technical experts online who can plan the entire website and work remotely from home. Ecommerce plays a big role in the growth of online workers.


Shopping online concept – Shopping service on The online web. with payment by credit card and offers home delivery. parcel or Paper cartons with a shopping cart logo on a laptop keyboard

Ecommerce helps businesses to go global. It increases digital employment and builds new entrepreneurs. Ecommerce speeds up the economic cash flow of the country because of the involvement of the banking system in trading. Ecommerce brings new start ups in the market and enhances entrepreneurial capability in the next generation business leaders. It helps in economic development and increases demand for technical jobs and skills globally.

Delhi University: A pride possession of India

Shaping lives, churning out the best of India and making it proud a zillion times!!!

The University of Delhi is a premier university of our country noted for setting the highest academic standards having many kinds of educational programs with a talented and highly skilled faculty and educated alumni. It was established in 1922 and since then it has maintained the highest global standards which are reflected in its students who adhere to human values, ethics, principles and believe in the motto of ‘Nishtha Dhriti Satyam’ which means dedication, steadfastness, and truth.
Delhi University has a modern infrastructure and diverse co-curricular activities. It is strongly committed to excellence in teaching, research and has been a role model and trendsetter example to other universities. The President of India is the Visitor with the Vice-President being the Chancellor and the Chief Justice of Supreme Court the Pro-Chancellor of the university. Delhi University started with 3 colleges and around 750 students and today it has grown into one of the largest universities with 16 faculties, more than 80 academic departments, 80 colleges, and 7 lakhs plus students. Delhi University’s programs are approved by academic councils and 209 of its programs have been considered for NAAC accreditation.

The students at Delhi University are trained to interact freely and truly embodying the principles of openness of Mansa(thought), vaacha(speech), and karmana(action). At the time of its inception, Sir Maurice Gwyer, the then Vice-Chancellor included prominent people like Prof. D. S. Kothari in Physics, Prof. T. R. Sheshadri in Chemistry, Prof. P. Maheshwari in Botany, and Prof. M. L. Bhatia in Zoology fields. The university’s departments of Geology, Chemistry, Sociology, Zoology and History have been conferred the status of Centres of Advanced Studies. These departments have carved an exclusive and excellent niche status for themselves proving to be the best in areas of teaching and research. Some of the university departments have also received grants under the Special Assistance Program for their outstanding work. The departments of Adult, Continuing Education and Extension and Women’s Studies and Development Centres are also getting special funding from UGC. There are 15 huge libraries in the university. The University Science Instrumentation Centre (USIC) has several very expensive, sophisticated, and modern research instruments which are used by teachers and research scholars of postgraduate departments and also by other institutions in the city.

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Delhi university strives to be an internationally acclaimed university, recognized for excellence in imparting knowledge, in conducting research, and its overall outreach. It aims to give the best quality education to all of its students by encouraging them, nurturing their skills and talents, promoting intellectual growth, and shaping their personalities to help them lead and dominate in a world full of challenges. It envisions serving humanity by creating well-educated, multi-skilled, socially responsible, and aware global citizens.
Delhi University offers Under-graduate, Post-graduate, Ph. D, M. Phil, Certificate, Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Intensive Advanced Diploma, Post Graduate Diploma Courses. It provides general and Honours courses together in Arts, Science, and Commerce streams. Some of the major courses offered by Delhi University are: –

  • The course is for 3 years.
    2.The eligibility criteria for the above course are 50% marks in 10+2 in any stream.
  • The subjects in this course are Vocational Studies, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, Sanskrit,
  • The selection criteria are merit-based.
    B. Com
  • The course is for 3 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% aggregate marks in the commerce stream.
  • The selection criteria are merit-based.
    M. Com
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in B. Com
  • The selection criteria are entrance-based.
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in graduation
  • The specializations are Business-Economics, International Business, HRD.
  • The selection criteria are CAT/GAT+GD+PI
  • The course is for 3 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 60% marks in graduation.
  • The selection criteria are the entrance exam and personal interview.

  • MA
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in graduation.
  • The subjects to be studied are Political Science, History, English, Hindi, Philosophy, Psychology, Economics, Social Work, East Asian Studies, Bengali, Comparative Indian Literature, Punjabi, Sociology, Geography, Buddhist Studies, French, German, Hispanic, Italian Studies, Arabic, Japanese, Linguistics, Russian Studies, Statistics.
  • The selection criteria are entrance-based exams.
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  • B. Tech
  • The course is for 4 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 10+2 in the science stream.
  • The selection criteria are entrance-based exams.
    M. Tech
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in B. Tech in a relevant subject.
  • The specializations are Engineering Management, VLSI, Design and Embedded System, Information System, Manufacturing Processes and Automation Engineering, Polymer Nano Technology, Production Engineering, Chemical Synthesis, and Process Technologies, Cad/Cam, Signal Processing, Nuclear Science and Technology.
  • The selection criteria are GATE exam scores.
    B. Sc (Hons.)
  • The course is for 3 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% aggregate marks in 10+2 in the science stream.
  • The subjects in this course are Mathematics, Computer Science, Physics, Chemistry, Microbiology, Zoology, Botany, Food Technology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Biological Science, Home Science, Electronics, Anthropology, Instrumentation, and Polymer Science.
  • The selection criteria are merit-based.
    M. Sc
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% aggregate marks in B. Sc in a relevant subject.
  • The subjects in this course are chemistry, Microbiology, Mathematics, Zoology, Computer Science, Physics, Nutrition, and Food Processing, Genetics, Botany, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Environment Studies and Resource Management, Biochemistry, Food Nutrition, Physical Education, Biomedical Science, Informatics, Resource Management, and Design Application, Fabric and Apparel Designing, Library and Information Science and Development Communication and Extension.
    B. Ed
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in Masters.
  • The selection criteria are entrance-test exams.
    M. Ed
  • The course is for 2 years.
  • The eligibility criteria are 50% marks in B. Ed or an equivalent degree.
  • The selection criteria are the entrance test.
    The basic eligibility requirements for the various courses offered at Delhi University are: –
    1.Undergraduate course—The eligibility requirement is an Intermediate graduate degree from a recognized board.
    2.Postgraduate course—The eligibility requirement is Bachelor’s degree in a discipline with 50% marks.
    3.M. Phil—The eligibility requirement is a Master’s degree in a discipline with 55% marks.
    4.Ph. D-–The eligibility requirement is 55% marks in a discipline.
    Delhi University gives UG, PG, M. Phil, and Ph. D courses in many disciplines. The process of admission for all the programs is conducted separately.
    The Delhi University UG admission offered at the university is based on merit. The candidate can apply via online mode by the end of May. The start of the application process for UG courses here coincides with the 10+2 exam result declaration by CBSE. After the completion of the application process, a cut-off score is released by the university for separate colleges and courses. For some of the courses like BBM, BBS, colleges affiliated with DU conduct entrance exams.
    The admission to PG courses at Delhi University is both merit-based and by conducting entrance exams. The university website provides the schedule of PG admission separately by the concerned departments. But the admission to M. Phil and Ph. D courses are based on the performance in an entrance test conducted by the respective department of Delhi University.

    Delhi University is among the first educational institutions to be given the status of Institute of Eminence. It is a research university located in New Delhi. It is a collegiate university which means its functions are divided between the affiliate colleges and academic departments of the university. Delhi University has more than 90 affiliated colleges and it is the largest university in the north region. The biggest of its campuses are the north and the south campus. The university has a good infrastructure, world-class faculty, and a comprehensive list of courses for students. There are 240 courses available for undergraduate (UG) and post-graduate (PG) degrees. Delhi University also provides scholarships to needy and meritorious students. The admission process is easy and the course fees are decent. It is one of the standard universities of the country which has notable alumni including Subramanian Swamy, member of Rajya Sabha and economist, Sheila Dikshit, CM of Delhi for 15 years, Arun Jaitley, minister of finance, and one of the best politicians, Shashi Tharoor, Amitabh Bachchan, famous actor, Neha Dhupia, actress. Delhi University is one of the best colleges meeting the standard criteria of excellence in all spheres.

The unlearning factor: How to lead a satisfactory life during the Covid pandemic

We are not familiar with the word ‘unroutine‘ but it defines our lives and cycle of doing things nowadays. We see ourselves entangled in the recurring cycle of uncertainty and unpredictability. We are stuck in our humble yet boring-now-to-a-limit abodes, being sadly homebound and not being able to feel free what with so many regulations to follow in a day’s game plan. We cannot be normal in either thought or deeds as we are driven crazy by these set of weird covid-crazy rules to follow. In the process of maintaining social distancing from our loved ones to being the masked warriors fighting this dangerous battle with an unwanted disease we have started losing our minds and sanity in a slow but steady process. So in a sense, we are maintaining quite a stipulated distance from living a full and optimal life under irregular circumstances.

But all hope is not lost yet. We can still find good things for us and try to preserve them. Because when all is gloomy and grey shaded, we need to keep stock of our small joys thus taking the baby steps towards optimal living. And keep that creative flicker alive and burning. All of our positive efforts can really help to balance our moods, moments and mindset and even alleviate us from our piled-up trash of unwanted stress and tensions. Being faced by an unprecedented crisis like Covid-19 phenomenon, we need to show that we are capable to outsmart these trying times by understanding it and balancing all the aspects in our favour while learning to be imperfect.

About the unlearning phenomenon

Now unlearning is a new form of learning, one which should be embraced in the moment. It means shedding habits, practices and processes which are and have been an integral part of our routines. To live an optimised life, we need to study our minds and find new patterns of thinking, socialising, working, collaborating and co-existing. Our routines need to be modified to suit and fit in a brand new lifestyle.

And then the question comes that do we have the power to control ourselves when the external factors are way beyond our control? Over the years we have all setup a specific work-home routine to suit our lazy needs, forgetting the part of life that is truly irregular and topsy-turvy. Life is not a safe bracket, not a comfort zone for one and all, not at all a safe bet to rely on blindfolded and not our cosy carpet which can be rolled out fulfilling our desires and multiple needs. By defining ourselves in a limit or cocooning our fat asses in our suitable routine shells, we cannot gain much and make any headway. And so then the point of unlearning comes in.

As we all are now thanks to the Dracula-disease, close to the word and experience of terrible, as our lives have been led beautifully astray, and as they smell rotten and suck badly, we should start to know the process of ‘unroutine’.We should stand out ready to take new challenges, try out new stuffs and be ready to experience something we are not familiar with.

Life is a changing art, it acquires more beauty and power when we are ready to enquire, observe, try, learn and experience. It is mundane if we get stuck in enjoying what is routinely and obvious and becomes more of a burden than a boon when we stop our curiosity to ponder, wander and visualize a world different, better and more interesting than the present one. We are all able to create universes more beautiful than our power and more perfect than our imaginations. So why shouldn’t we step up to create wonders and do everything that we can? Because we are in command to handle life, our masterpiece.

It has been proven by research that people who are more willing to accept changes in any phase of life faster and easily than others shine out as winners in lesser time than their counterparts. The uncertainty of our lives puts our will, our strength and our collective abilities to a test to prove that we are head and heart strong together with having the right mix of passion, perseverance and integrity to fight through any toughness and challenge crossing our paths. The trying times are the test papers measuring us on every of the parameters which constitute vitals of a perfect life. We should try to accept non-conventional ways to do things and take negative and petty stuffs in our strides learning from them and making amends.

We must be confident of our competency status and not get stuck in unending speculations and worries of the future. We can’t make future perfect by wishing. Rather we can do so by making our present perfect and feeling the same too. We must try to reinvent, rediscover and reposition ourselves. We should focus on our inner treasures and update them before focussing on the outer world.

We should take one day at a time and give our best in that day. We should not overthink about what will happen tomorrow and ruin the present moment. We should not let other’s opinions deviate us from our faith, opinions and convictions. We must go after tiny things that are capable of giving us complete joys and satisfaction and which must be given a special position in our lives to take motivation from. We should try to find out ways to get through our obstacles and we must not go crazy after finding the diamond of perfection as sometimes a diamond with a flaw creates more sparkle than one without. A special sparkle of truth and divinity which only needs to be understood by the righteous.

So guys we should all put our crazy attires on and just run the show of life to enjoy it well, not always working to perfect that cranky shit because perfection is not a pleasure always. We need to bend our rules a bit and see the real better picture which requires strokes of craziness, happiness, imperfect shots and perfected smiles, maybe even loud banter decorated with the bliss of the moment which is crankier. Let’s for once forget who was the perfectionist. Let’s remember the crazy gist of our lives, the fun-on-the-run thing and embrace everything as it is. Because the beauty lies there in our acceptance of things. And in cute innocent imperfection!!!

Drinks to help control cholesterol levels

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is used by the body to make cells and hormones. There are two kinds of cholesterols, high-density lipoprotein(HDL) and low-density lipoprotein(LDL). When cholesterol levels are unbalanced it increases the risk of serious health issues like stroke or heart attacks.

There are some drinks that can help lower or control cholesterol to safe levels. These include:-

  1. Green Tea—Green tea has catechins and other antioxidant compounds that help lower “bad” LDL cholesterol levels. In a research conducted on rats they were given water infused with catechins and epigallocatechin gallate, another beneficial antioxidant in green tea. It was noticed after 56 days that cholesterol and bad LDL levels had reduced by around 14.4% and 30.4% in the two groups of rats on high-cholesterol diets.

Black tea-Black tea can also have a positive impact on reducing cholesterol but to a lesser extent than it’s green variant. It is mainly because there are different amounts of catechins in the teas which means that the body absorbs liquid differently. Caffeine can also help raise the HDL levels.

2.Soy milk—Soy is low in saturated fat. By replacing cream or high milk products with soy milk or creamers can also help reduce and manage cholesterol levels.


The Food and Drug Administration(FDA) recommends the consumption of 25 grams per day of soy protein as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. Some others recommend consuming 2-3 servings of soy-based foods or drinks daily with a single serving representing 250 ml of soy milk.

3. Oat drinks-–Oats contain beta-glucans, which make a gel-like substance in the gut and interact with bile salts reducing cholesterol absorption. In a review done in 2018 it was found that oat drinks like oat milk provide a better and consistent reduction in cholesterol than semi-solid or solid oat products. A consumption of 3 gms per day of beta-glucans can lead to a 7% reduction in LDL. One cup of oat milk can give up to 1.3 gms of beta-glucans.

One should make sure to check for labels containing beta-glucans.

4.Tomato juice-–Tomatoes are rich in a compound called lycopene which may improve lipid levels and reduce ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol. It has also been seen that processing tomatoes into juice increases their lycopene content. Tomato juice is also rich in cholesterol-reducing fiber and niacin. According to a 2015 study 25 women who drank 280 ml of tomato juice daily for 2 months experienced a reduction in blood cholesterol levels.

5.Berry smoothies—Many berries are rich in antioxidants and fibres, both of which may help to reduce cholesterol levels. Berries have a powerful antioxidant agent which can help improve cholesterol levels. Berries are also low in calories and fat. Some of the healthy berries are:-

  1. Strawberries 2. Blueberries 3. Blackberries 4. Raspberries

6. Drinks having sterols and stanols—Sterols and stanols are plant chemicals similar in shape and size to cholesterol that block the absorption of cholesterol. Vegetables and nuts have low levels of sterols and stanols that cannot lower cholesterol. Some companies are adding these chemicals to foods and drinks including fortified yoghurt drinks, milk and fruit juices. According to the FDA, people should try to consume 1.3 gm or more of sterols and 3.4 gms of stanols per day. One should try to consume sterols and stenols in a meal.

7.Cocoa drinks—Cocoa is the main ingredient in dark chocolate. It contains antioxidants called flavonols which improve cholesterol levels. According to a 2015 study consuming a 450 mg drink having cocoa flavonols twice daily for one month lowered ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol levels while increasing ‘good’ HDL cholesterol levels.

Cocoa contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids which can also help to improve cholesterol levels. But drinks containing processed chocolate have high levels of saturated fats.

8. Plant milk smoothies— Many types of plant-based milk smoothies contain ingredients that may help lower cholesterol levels. A person can make a suitable smoothie base using soy or oat milk.

9.Alcohol—It has been found that low to moderate alcohol consumption can be very beneficial in terms of heart health than not drinking at all. The consumption of alcohol in moderate levels seems to increase ‘good’ HDL cholesterol levels. It means it is good for females to drink up to 1 alcoholic drink per day and it is upto 2 drinks for males.


Some of the drinks to avoid which have high saturated fats, which can be harmful and which will increase cholesterol levels are:-

1.Coffees or teas with added cream, whipped cream, high fat milk or creamer.

2.Drinks or smoothies containing coconut or palm oils.

3.Pressed coconut drinks

4.Ice cream-based drinks

5.High fat milk products

Drinking more than 12 ounces of sugary drinks per day may also reduce HDL levels and increase triglyceride levels or levels of fats in the bloodstream. Some examples of sugary drinks include:-

Fruit juices

Sports drinks

Energy drinks

Soda or pop

Sweetened coffees or teas

Hot chocolate

Prepackaged smoothies

Chocolate or sweetened milk products

More ways to lower cholesterol

Several behavioural changes or habits can help lower cholesterol levels like,

Animal products

Tropical oils

1.Keeping a balance when eating foods high in saturated fats such as:-

Baked goods

Fried foods

Processed foods

2.Balancing out when eating foods high in sugars:-

3.Doing at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate-to-intense exercise every week.

4.Eating a mix of healthy foods including fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, nuts, pulses, vegetable oils, fat-free dairy products in moderation.

5.Increasing the intake of fibers.

6.Trying to quit smoking.

7.Managing and treating type 2 diabetes.

8.Maintaining a moderate body weight.

9.Staying hydrated.

Some prescribed medications like statins can also help lower cholesterol levels.

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About cholesterol

High levels of circulating cholesterol can lead to complicated health risks.

LDL is considered a bad type of cholesterol because it can accumulate on the inner lining of blood vessels and form plaque. And with time plaque can narrow blood vessels reducing the amount of blood that vessels can carry. Plaque buildup is especially dangerous when it forms in arteries which supply blood to vital organs like brain or heart. The narrowed arteries also increase the risk of a blood clot or other substances getting stuck in them. This can increase the risk of a heart attack or a stroke.

HDL is considered a good type of cholesterol. It absorbs the circulating, unwanted cholesterol returning it to the liver for excretion. For a healthy body it is required to limit or reduce the level of LDL and increase that of HDL. The foods rich in unsaturated fat can help the body to absorb HDL and those rich in saturated and trans fat increase LDL levels in blood. The adults over 20 years should get a cholesterol check-up done every 5 years.

The optimal levels of cholesterol to be present in a healthy human body are—

1.Less than 200 mgs per deciliter(mg/dl) for total cholesterol.

2.Less than 100 mgs per deciliter(mg/dl) for LDL cholesterol.

3. More than 40 mgs per deciliter(mg/dl) for HDL cholesterol.

So apart from taking other beverages or eating one’s choicest food one should include these drinks in one’s diet to keep the levels of cholesterol in control and giving a new lease of life full of energy, spirits and health to oneself.

It’s open space please!!!

  1. What are wave snakes?

Wave snakes are long, red tubes that help convert the motion of waves into electricity and form part of a commercial wave power station. It was developed by a British company and took ten years to create. Currently the pilot wave power project has been launched off the coast of a Portuguese town called Agucadoura and aims to power 1,000 families home’s in it’s initial phase.

2.What is summer ploughing?

Ploughing one month in advance i.e, the month of May for Kharif crops is known as summer ploughing. There are three usual harvests known as the kharif or autumn(June-September)harvest, the rabi or spring harvest(October-March) and zaid or extra harvest(March-June). Summer ploughing of groundnut is always advantageous.

3.What is the God particle?

God particle is the nick name given to Higgo boson particle, so far a hypothetical subatomic particle believed to impart mass to the atom and eventually to all matter in the universe. The particle has come to the limelight in the wake of the ongoing Big Bang experiment in the Large Haddon Collider at Geneva which expects to verify the very existence of the particle for the first time.

4. What is Munchausen Syndrome?

Munchausen Syndrome also known as hospital addiction, factitious illness, afflicting those referred to as professional patients is a repeated fabrication of clinically convincing simulations of a disease for the purpose of gaining medical attention. It refers to patients who wander from hospital to hospital feigning acute medical or surgical illness and giving false and fanciful information about their medical and social background for no apparent reason other than to gain attention. The cause is unclear, prognosis poor and the treatment is often unsuccessful in these psychiatric patients.

5. What is Einstein’s Rule of 72?

The Rule of 72 is a rule of thumb credited to Albert Einstein that investors use to approximate the time it takes for money to double at a given rate of return. It states that if you divide the number 72 by any given rate of return the answer you get is the time it takes for money to double at that given interest rate, assuming you can get the same rate each year and it is compounded annually. For eg if you earn 10% on your money it would double in 7.2 years(72 divided by 10=7.2)The value 72 is a convenient choice of numerator since it has many small divisors, 1,2,3,4,6,8,9,12.It provides a good approximation for annual compounding and for compounding at typical rates(from 6% to 10%).The approximations are less accurate at higher interest rates.

6. What does Acropolis mean?

Acropolis is a Greek term and refers generally to an elevated area in the centre of a city, acting as it’s focal point for cultural, religious and civil activities. In particular the term refers to the rocky hill at the centre of Athens, Greece on which are located several ancient monuments including the famous Parthenon, the temple for the Goddess Athena constructed around 5th century B.C. In Greek, Acro means high and polis means city. All ancient cities were supposed to have been first set up on elevated areas primarily for defence. Even after a city grew around the initial elevated area, the elevated area continued to act as a nucleus for the city’s growth and culture. By generalization of the term Acropolis it is now used to refer to a central complex of structure in some cities.

7. What is creative capitalism?

Creative capitalism is an approach where governments, businesses and nonprofit organizations work together to stretch the reach of market forces so that more people can make a profit or gain recognition and do work that eases the world’s inequities. Bill Gates in a much admired and debated speech given at the World Economic Forum in Davos said that many of the world’s biggest problems cannot be fixed by philanthropy but require free-market capitalism or creative capitalism to solve.

8. What is the Kit-Cat Club?

The Kit-Cat Club was an early 18th century English club in London with strong political and literary associations. Members of the club were called Whigs. They were painters, politicians etc. The club’s members included the writers Richard Steele, Joseph Addison, John Vanbrugh, Godfrey Kneller, William Congreve and political figures like Robert Walpole and the duke of Marlborough who flourished in London between 1703 and 1720.

9.What is the Captcha Project?

The term CAPTCHA was coined over fifteen years ago. They have been through many changes over these years. It is an acronym for ‘Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell Computers And Humans Apart.’ It is also known to be a particular type of challenge-response test and other than trying to tell humans and computers apart it is a web-based protection mechanism. It was introduced in the year 2000 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicolas J. Hopper and John Langford. The main uses of CAPTCHA are to prevent comment spam in blogs, protect website registration, protecting email accounts from scrapers, online polls and prevent dictionary attacks. Most of us must be familiar with programs that submit bogus comments in the hope of raising search engine ranks of a certain website. By using CAPTCHA only humans would be able to make a post on the comment section of the blog.

10. What is a false vacuum?

In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a hypothetical vacuum that is not actively decaying but somewhat is not totally stable. It may last for a very long time in that state, a property that is known as metastability and might eventually move to a more stable state in an event known as Vacuum decay. A false vacuum exists at a local minimum of energy and so is not stable in contrast to a true vacuum which exists at a global minimum and is stable.

11.What is the dissociative identity disorder?

Dissociative Identity disorder(DID) previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder(MPD) is a mental disorder characterized by the maintenance of at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states. The disorder is accompanied by memory gaps beyond what would be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Some other conditions that often occur in people with DID include post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, depression, substance use disorders, conversion disorder, somatic symptom disorder, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and sleep disorders.

12. Why does the moon appear upside down in the southern hemisphere?

The moon does appear ‘upside down’ in the southern hemisphere as compared to the northern hemisphere but it is simply a matter of orientation. If we imagine the moon orbiting in the same plane as the equator and if we were in the northern hemisphere the moon would always appear in the southern sky as that is the direction of the equator. The reverse is true in the southern hemisphere, the moon would appear in the northern sky.

So the two observers are looking at the same object from opposite directions and naturally it means one sees the object flipped compared to the other. It means that the ‘man in the moon’ is upside down in the southern hemisphere and can actually look more like a rabbit.


Know it better

Some informatory crunch for all of us to know stuff better and brighter. Let there be light. Of knowledge everywhere.

1. Tell me, how do deep-sea fish live?

Ans-Deep sea fish live completely in the dark where green plants can not grow. They have to withstand a strong water pressure and intense cold. For this reason, many have luminous parts in their bodies. Others have eyes trained to pick up the tiniest glow or speck of light. And some of them are blind, relying on their powers of touch and many have very thick skins. All feed on remains floating on the surface and on other marine life.

2. Tell me, how many oceans are there?

Ans-The oceans are huge masses of water, between continents but all lived together to form one mass. There are three, the most easterly is the Pacific Ocean covering about 100,000 sq. km, then comes the Atlantic with around 106,000,000sq km and the Indian Ocean around 75,000,000 plus their glaciers seas of the Arctic and Antarctica cover 70% of earth’s surface altogether. 

3. Tell me, are there any sea monsters?

Ans-Hundreds of sea monsters have been reported of every size and description. But not a single one has ever been captured. We have to remember that when sailors spend months at sea, with time to look out on the expanse of the oceans, imagination can play strange tricks. And when science or technology cannot give an explanation, out of the ordinary sightings often lead to legends of sea monsters.

4. Tell me, how can we avoid sea sickness?

Ans-Sickness, giddiness, sweating and headache are all symptoms of seasickness. It is caused by the rolling of the boat and the longitudinal axis, from one broadside to the other or part to starboard and around the horizontal axis, from bow to stern. To avoid seasickness eat only solid, spicy food and keep to the centre of the boat in the open air, eyes closed to avoid looking at anything which is moving.

5. Tell me, what colour is the sea?

Ans-Sea Waters are clear, but the surface colour depends on the reflection of the sky. So with a grey sky, the sea will be grey and in bad weather, the sea would be grey. But the deeper the water, the deeper is the colour, becoming blue, then gradually darkening into violet. This is because the light from the rays of the sun are made up all of the gradual changes or graduations which are lost one by one as the light cuts through the water.

6. Tell me, how deep is the sea?

Ans-The Pacific Ocean is the deepest, with a minimum depth of 4,050 mts, maximum of 11,030 mts. Next is the Indian Ocean with minimum 3,900 mts, maximum 9,200 and the Atlantic, minimum 3,300,maximum depth 9,200 mts. The maximum depth of the Arctic Ocean is 5,500 mts, then the Mediterranean Sea with a maximum depth of 6,120 mts and minimum of1000 mts. Bottom of the deep sea league is the Baltic, minimum depth,460 mts and the North Sea,90 to 100 mts.

7. Tell me, why is the sea salty?

Ans-All water contains salt. The taste depends on the quantity and the water in which it is dissolved. In the sea, the saltiness depends on the temperature, the rivers flowing into it and the currents. With high temperatures, water evaporates and the salt gets very concentrated. Rivers are of clear water, so a sea which has a lot of river water has less salt than one where few rivers flow. The currents mix the waters and so dilute the quantity of salt.


Let the child rule first: Autonomy based parenting is really good during the pandemic times

The parenting based on autonomy promotes the overall wellbeing of children and parents in the difficult phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

To parents school-going children remotely is a challenge. Some parents have to do their jobs from home and also keep an eye on their children because they lack normal child support services like day care during the time of the pandemic. According to a new study allowing children some more freedom and self time maybe the most effective strategy for adults and children alike.

Research has tried to explore whether or not autonomy-supportive parental behaviour can facilitate adaptation and better child well-being. It has also been explored whether such parenting behaviour helps to create a positive emotional climate that can be beneficial to both parents and children. The study could find that autonomy-supportive parenting behaviour is positively connected with better child well-being and higher parental need fulfilment. And as an additional benefit it was also found that though this parenting style needed a ton of care and energy to maintain but it also provided a recharging effect for them.

About autonomy based parenting

Autonomy based parenting means allowing a child to operate in independence within a structured setup and reasonable boundaries. In this parental technique an adult communicates in a non-judgmental way to the child that allows them to explore their own strategies and solutions without fear of reprisal. This way the child gains the opportunity to own their actions and consequences. By excluding parental micromanagement, autonomy-based parenting helps to promote a child’s feeling of competence.

Considering the context of the current pandemic, autonomy-based parenting means that a child takes up more responsibility for the quality of their schoolwork just like they would have done if they were in a pre-pandemic normal classroom. And this method also returns some much needed time to the working and ultra busy parents to give them a sigh of relief and a moment to breathe.

The study methods

Through the use of parent questionnaires the researchers tracked the prevalence and effect of autonomy-based parenting over 3 consecutive weeks during the pandemic. The findings from the daily questionnaires suggested that autonomy-supportive parenting is beneficial for the well being of both children and parents. The study also found out that autonomy-based parenting improved family cohesion with parents experiencing enhanced vitality and a reduction in stress.

Autonomy-supportive behavior can have positive downstream effects not only on the receiving child but also on the social system and the provider of support.

So don’t boss over your kid. Let him take the lead and initiative to do things, right or wrong, but his way so that the corona pandemic becomes a learning period and a fun one too for your prince and princess. All good, and all happy!!!

A new approach to hotel housekeeping: Green Cleaning

We all know the importance of ‘green’ as it is the most wanted buzzword of today. As the world is tormented by massive environmental issues like global warming, ozone depletion, pollution, exploitation and depletion of natural resources, increasing amounts of solid wastes are found everywhere in this world. Over the years there has been a considerable amount of understanding of environment preservation and sustainable practices amongst various sectors and masses of India. So the terms like green housekeeping, eco-friendly practices, biodegradable wastes and indoor air quality(IAQ) are not baseless and have a big role to play in the effort towards sustainability. The 3 R’s of Sustainability, reduce, reuse and recycle are some concepts on which the hotel industry is forming guidelines to reduce impurities and strive for sustainable development.

What is Green Housekeeping?

Green Housekeeping is an important aspect of sustainable practices,and is an evolving trend of today.All the housekeepers around the world are making efforts to switch over to ‘green cleaning’.It is a comparatively new concept which means using cleaning products and methods which are environment-friendly and which have ingredients and processes that will help to preserve human health and the quality of the surroundings.

It is now a norm to have a green cleaning policy for all the hotels. It also requires many aspects like a re-evaluation of cleaning products and practices to improve the indoor air quality and to be sensitive to the environment. In the US an organisation called LEED(Leadership in energy and environmental design)has made such a policy mandatory for certification of the environment of hotels. 

Need for Green Housekeeping 

We firstly need to know why we need to get rid of the traditional cleaning methods and what are the problems associated with them.There is a big notion that effective cleaning is possible with products which have chemicals in them.But research has proved that these cleaning products and methods cause a lot of health problems.

  • The strong chemicals used in housekeeping are related to serious health issues like eye-throat irritation,headache,nausea,damage to organs like liver and kidney and also cancer.So to remove these negative effects of chemicals in cleaning products the hotels are switching over to green certified cleaning products and equipment.
  • These products have some resilient qualities like low toxicity,they are not carcinogenic,have no harmful chemicals,are milder and don’t emit fumes and gases as against other products.
  • The housekeeping supplies like toilet rolls and tissue papers are also made eco-friendly as they are unbleached and made from recycled materials.Following certain housekeeping practices like use of certified equipment,microfiber cleaning,entryway matting and water saving devices also augment the green cleaning movement.
  • These environment friendly cleaning equipments work on the principle of using less harmful chemicals and concentrate more on their mechanical action,time spent on cleaning and the temperature of water used. 
  • The vacuum cleaners working on this principle make less noise and are 99% more effective in cleaning.

How to test green cleaning products

Before deciding to choose the required product, it has to be made sure that it is effective, efficient and equally economical to use in the long run. The certifying agencies in US like Green Seal test these products for human health and environment friendliness and more such cleaning aspects on a very stringent basis. The chemicals used in these products are biodegradable, have low VOC(volatile organic compounds)content, low impact on IAQ, are non-irritant to users and guests, are concentrated and can be used for multi purposes. The MSDS(Material Safety Data Sheet) of the given cleaning products must be thoroughly evaluated. And it has to be ensured that the products and equipment are certified by authorized and well-known agencies. The products of Diversey have been certified by Green Seal, Environmental Choice, Green guard etc. These green chemicals are cost-effective too as they have a very low dilution ratio and more productivity compared to their traditional counterparts.

The concept of ‘Green Cleaning’ has been very impactful in the Indian hotel industry and is going to stay. The FHRAI(Federation of hotel and restaurant association of India)has plans to establish an accreditation committee to certify hotels to implement eco-friendly practices. Many top Indian hotels follow US Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design(LEED)Certification to volunteer their commitment to the green movement.

Steps to be taken by hotels to make housekeeping eco-friendly are-

1.Stay away from chemicals

In the hotel industry there is a great usage of chemicals than in offices and households. When purchasing cleaning products, hotels must select ones which are least harmful to health and surroundings together. The water run-off from hotels can pollute water resources if toxic cleaning solutions are used. The use of fertilizers and pesticides in the hotel premises must be in a safe and minimum manner. Room fresheners are another source of many toxins like formaldehyde, benzene, styrene, phthalates. So such products must be used which are natural, pure and less toxic.

2.Safe chemicals must be used

The chemicals which are used must be handled vigilantly and with care because exposure to such harmful chemicals will have a negative impact on housekeeping staff.The safety of the staff must be a priority job and they must be provided with adequate equipments and tools like safety goggles and gloves when working with dangerous chemicals.The cleaning products must be appropriately diluted.The strong chemicals must be stored in strong containers to avoid their leakage.

3.Green Cleaning

The standard of cleaning service of the hotel must be good. The most effective cleaning options must be used to keep the surfaces, floors and everything else spic and span, spotless. There are many products being used in daily chores which can have a massive impact on the people and environment around them. For eg, chemical-based fungicides can have a negative impact on local insect populations including bees and some cleaning liquids can release toxic fumes or harm if mishandled.

4.Investment in green equipment

The hotels must invest in green equipment to use the resources minimally. Sustainable products must be used for floor and carpet care. For eg, Green Seal gives environmental certification in the US and it recommends vacuum cleaners that comply with Carpet and Rug Institute’s Green Label Program requirements and work. Energy efficient air conditioners must be used in the hotel including guest rooms.

5.Presence of Pest Management Plan

The pesticides and pest management methods used in a hotel must adhere to the condition of being sensitive to the environment.Every hotel must have a good indoor Integrated Pest Management Plan(IPM) that directs how pests will be managed in the hotel in a harmless manner being non-toxic and natural.The situation of their use too must be defined in the plan.According to LEED guidelines,guests must be told about the use of pesticides before and after their use in the hotel.

6.An educated and trained staff

The use of required products and processes may not just be the ultimate solution if there is the lack of aware and trained staff to carry on their works flawlessly.So the staff must be given required training and other needed courses to update them totally.This step will help conserve water which may be otherwise wasted due to unnecessary flushing of toilets or the use of certain cleaning methods.In this way the staff can learn about various aspects of keeping the hotel in a proper way including rationalization,water management,energy efficiency,water recycling etc.

Benefits of Green Cleaning

The ultimate aim to use the green cleaning method is to use the techniques and ingredients in a safe and healthy way. Some benefits of going green are—

1.Environment friendly

2.Better knowledge of the ingredients of the chemicals

3.Safer to use

4.Does not pollute water areas

5.Clean and fresh quality


The green cleaning revolution is at it’s full swing in India. Now it has become mandatory for most of the hotels to support and incorporate this method of cleaning and housekeeping. It’s safer, easier and totally compatible with human health and other aspects. So the hotel industry must include it in their policy and reap out benefits from it, they being massive.

5 best choices for doing internship in hotel management

A proper term of internship done in a hospitality course is very important. These internships are given a good amount of weightage in the final semester exams of the hospitality courses. It is done because of the type of work in which a student will have to establish him/herself after doing a course in hospitality management. The work of the students when they become professionals has to be perfect in all possible ways. In this case, the professionals have to work well and live upto the expectations of the customers or guests and see that they are fully satisfied with the services. So most of the hotel management institutions as part of their course curriculum make it purely essential for students to pursue a 6-week internship referred to as ‘industrial training’ by them. 

Some of the best choices for doing an internship in hotel management are:-

1.Marriott Hotel—The students can pursue an internship at Marriot Hotel for six months. According to the internship, the students are required to work in different departments such as the front office, housekeeping, food and beverage service, and kitchen for different time periods. Marriott is one of the hotels which allows the students to train actively as an intern at the hotel’s front office giving them direct exposure to the world and real business dealings.

Process to apply

The colleges may contact Marriott and send the resume of their students to the hotel. After this, the hotel calls students for an interview and selects them for an internship. Students can also call the hotel on their own behalf and contact the training department to know if they have a vacancy for an internship.


The internship at Marriott is generally offered for a duration of six months. The candidates can apply for internships in two batches:-

Summer Batch—Starts from June-July every year.

Winter Batch-–Starts from December-January each year.


The candidates are offered Rs.1000 per month at Marriott Hotel.

2.Oberoi Hotel

Students can apply for a free internship at Oberoi Hotel as a part of their industrial training. This internship is for a duration of six months wherein they work for many departments for different lengths of time. It also gives a shorter duration of internship of 17 weeks at a single department or longer duration ones for a year. The hotel offers internships to around 40 students in a single batch.

Process to apply

The colleges send the resumes of their students but individual students can also contact the hotel asking for details of the internship.


The Oberoi Hotel gives internship opportunities in two batches.

 Summer Batch–This internship batch starts in May and continues for six months. Interviews are conducted to shortlist candidates in the month of February each year.

Winter Batch—This internship batch starts in the month of November. The interviews are conducted for this batch in the month of September each year.


The Oberoi Hotel offers Rs.800 per month as a stipend to it’s interns.

3.The Leela Hotel

Another of the best hotels for an internship is the Leela Hotel. This hotel offers an internship of 17 weeks to students pursuing the hotel management course. But this hotel prefers to give internships to those candidates who are recommended by the respective colleges. The hotel offers students a chance to intern under various departments of the hotel like operations, front office, food and beverage services, housekeeping, and kitchen.

Process to apply

The best way to get an internship position at this hotel is by contacting college authorities or the student can even contact the hotel individually for the position.


The Leela hotel offers internships in two batches to students.

Summer Batch–-The hotel conducts interviews in March to fill up internship places for the batch starting in June/July every year. The strength of each batch is 10.

Winter Batch-–The hotel conducts interviews in the month of August for the batch starting in September/October each year. The number of students of this batch is 15.


The hotel provides Rs.1000 as a stipend to students for the six-month internship here.

4.Westin Hotel and Resorts

This hotel too is a popular choice for aspiring candidates wanting to enter this field. This hotel offers internship opportunities to candidates at all it’s four main departments which include housekeeping and kitchen, food and beverage services, front office, and operations.

Process to apply

The Westin hotel offers internship positions on the recommendation of the respective colleges and does not give priority to the personal internship requests of students. It is because the college will favor those students who have better grades, attendance, and behavior profiles than their non-serious counterparts.


The Westin college gives internships in two batches.

Summer Batch-–This internship batch starts in June/July. The hotel’s Gurgaon batch gives internships to 40 students and the Sona outlet of the hotel gives internships to 20 students in this summer batch.

Winter Batch-–This internship batch starts from September/October onwards. The Westin Hotel’s Gurgaon branch gives internships to 50 students and the Sona outlet gives internships to 30 students in the winter batch.


Westin Hotel gives Rs.1500 per month as a stipend to students during internship.

5.Taj Mahal Hotel

The students in this hotel can intern at all departments of the Taj Group of hotels. The hotel gives a four and a half to six-month industrial training to students at all hotel management related departments. If the authorities feel that a student has an inclination to intern at other departments then such students are allowed to work with the hotel staff in the HR and sales departments.

Process to apply

The students can apply for an internship at Taj by first making a call to the hotel’s HR. Then they need to send their CV and appear for interviews before a panel. On clearing the interview they are recruited for an internship.


Students intern at Taj in two batches.

Summer Batch—This batch starts in May and candidates are shortlisted on the basis of interviews conducted in January and February. At the end of February, all internships are closed for the summer batch.

Winter Batch-–This batch starts in November/December and candidates are shortlisted based on interviews done in June/July. By July end all vacancies are closed for the winter batch.


Students selected for an internship at Taj are given a stipend of Rs.1200 per month.


There are many hotels in India and abroad also for doing internships where candidates get trained with the best faculty, experience, and fun learning to succeed. All that the student needs to do to land an internship position in these five-star hotels is maintain good scores, be serious in outlook with a hard-working attitude and a keen interest to learn tricks of the trade and be the best professional by his/her efforts and positivity. And then the sky too will be theirs. And there will be no stopping.

Diploma and Certificate Courses in Hotel Management and course curriculum for UG and PG courses

The students interested in hotel management have plenty of options when it comes to courses. Hotel management courses are available at the undergraduate and postgraduate level along with diploma and certificate courses. To choose a hotel management course students should meet the eligibility criteria for that particular course and should be aware of the course curriculum and their purpose of pursuing it. Some of the diploma and certificate courses in hotel management are:-




Food Production

Bakery and Confectionery

Front Office Operation

Food and Beverage Service

Housekeeping Operation

Ground Staff and Cabin Crew 



Communication Skills

Management Skills

Food Production

Marketing Management

Top Colleges

VELS University, Chennai

Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur

Indian Hotel Academy, Delhi



Food Production

Food and Beverage Service

Catering Management

Culinary Arts




Largely depends on the certificate course selected by the college. 

Some of the subjects in the course are-

Food and Beverage Control Management

Bar and Beverage Management

Housekeeping Operations

Resort Management

Top Colleges

Westin College of Hotel Management, Vijayawada

Vainavi Educational Institutions, Hyderabad




Accommodation, Operation, and Management

Dietetics and Hospital Food Service

Hospitality Management


Front Office Management

Financial Management

Food Production

Beverage Operations

Human Resource Management

Top Colleges

Heritage Institute of Hotel and Tourism, Shimla

People’s University, Bhopal

Swarnim Startup and education University, Gandhinagar

Course curriculum for hotel management UG Courses

Course                                            ——–      Hotel Management Subjects

1.Bsc in Hospitality and Hotel Administration—Introduction to cookery, culinary history, culinary terms, aims and objects of cooking food, basic principles of food production-1, methods of cooking food. 

2.Bachelor of Hotel Management(BHM)—Food and beverage service, kitchen operations management, wines fundamentals, fundamentals of management, marketing, and human resource management.

3.Bachelor in Hotel Management and catering technology(BHMCT)—Food and beverages services, food production and patisserie, front office management, hospitality accounts, hospitality, sales, and marketing, public relations, management of ticketing and fare, housekeeping management and room maintenance, etc.

 4.BA in Hotel Management—General operations, sales and marketing, front office, food and beverage, service keeping, and catering.

5.BA(hons) in hotel management-–Tourism and hospitality management foundation, food and beverage operations, food production operations, property management systems, accommodation management, personal development planning(PDP), hotel interface/hotel exposure, management of hospitality organizations, business finance, marketing management, human resource management, meetings-incentives-conferences-exhibition management(open),facilities management(open),strategic management, hotel operations management, corporate governance, managing innovation and change(open),digital and marketing communication(open). 

6.BBA in hospitality, travel, and tourism— Business organization, fundamentals of travel and tourism, business mathematics, business accounting, business communication-1, business computing, marketing management, business communication-2, research methodology, and report writing, business law, marketing communication, financial management, consumer behaviour and market research, business economics-2, travel agency and tour operations, human resource management, essentials of strategy management, entrepreneurship and venture management, food and beverage management.

7.BA(Hons) in Culinary Arts–Culinary management foundation, food and beverage operations, food production operations, property management systems, nutrition, health and safety management, personal development planning(PDP),hotel interface/hotel exposure, management of hospitality organizations, business finance, marketing management, human resource management, meetings-incentives-conferences and exhibition management(open),contemporary gastronomy(open),facilities management(open),strategic management, culinary operations management, global cuisine management, digital and marketing communication(open),culinary innovation management(open),global events and festivals(open),corporate governance(open). 

      Course curriculum for hotel management PG courses   

Course                                              ——            Hotel Management Subjects

1.Master of Hotel Management(MHM)— Principles and practices of management, organizational behavior, accommodation management, food and beverage management, food science, French language, nutrition and dietetics management, communication and soft skills, human resource management, marketing management, applied operations research, financial management facilities, design and management, hospitality management, food and beverage management, accommodation management, marketing and sales, fundamentals of tourism and tourism products, strategic management, management institute system(MIS).

2. Master in Tourism and Hotel Management(MTHM)-–Service Management for Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Hospitality Operations and Management, tourism management, quantitative methods for business, sales management, marketing in tourism and hospitality industry, financial management in tourism and hospitality, strategic and sustainable management in tourism and hospitality, gaming and Casio management, revenue management and hotel analytics, strategic brand management.

3.Msc in tourism and hospitality management-— Quality service and operations management, food and beverage management, tourism management, tourism entrepreneurship and innovation management, international hospitality business, research and quantitative methods, human resource management and industrial relations, financial and management accounting, tourism and hospitality marketing, sociology of tourism, property management, strategy planning and management in tourism and hospitality business, infrastructure management, decision making under uncertainty, event planning and management, sustainable tourism development.

4. MBA Hospitality Management—Organizational theory and management, hospitality and tourism management, food and beverage management and control, principles of operation management, financial management, marketing management, customer relationship management, quantitative applications in management, marketing research and report preparation, economic analysis, business environment, and law, accounting for management, food science and dietetics management, computer applications, business communication, behavioural science, strategic management, management in action: social, economic and ethical issues, facility planning, design and management, total quality management, accommodation management, marketing of services, front office management, public relations and corporate images, event and conference management, recruitment, selection, training and development, hospitality law, advertising and sales promotions, brand management, service operation management, foreign language: French German, Spanish, Japanese and Chinese.

5.MBA Hotel Management--Principles of tourism and hotel management, financial accounting for tourism and hotel business, managerial communication, tourism products of India, front office management theory, food production and beverage service, bakery and confectionery theory, central reservation system procedure, travel management, human resource management, entrepreneurship development, tourism hospitality and marketing management, tourism planning, food safety and nutrition, cargo management, IT for tourism and hotel, research methodology, customer relationship and service management, the legal framework for tourism and hotel, hotel facility management.


The hospitality industry is on a booming high in today’s times and it is really offering a plethora of opportunities and roles to learn and master. The diploma, certificate courses and UG, PG courses are the required qualifications to get a job in this sector and be on a ride in life to beautiful destinations and wonderful learning experiences. The field is a great booster for people charged with zeal, energy, a curiosity to learn, and the dedication to do and achieve. So aspirants should not feel low about the field as it is second to none and they should be motivated in it to colour the sky blue, pink, or purple with their hard work and versatile talents.